Students studying at universities in England have been defined as customers by the government since the introduction of student tuition fees. Although this approach has been rejected by educators, there is a lack of empirical evidence about the extent to which students express a consumer orientation and its effects on academic performance. These issues were examined in the current study by surveying 608 undergraduates at higher education institutions in England about their consumer attitudes and behaviours in relation to their higher education, learner identity, and academic performance. The analysis revealed that consumer orientation mediated traditional relationships between learner identity, grade goal and academic performance, and found that a higher consumer orientation was associated with lower academic performance. Furthermore, responsibility for paying tuition fees and studying a Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics subject were associated with a higher consumer orientation and subsequently lower academic performance. Implications for academic performance are discussed.
If you’re thinking of having yourself cryogenically suspended and awakened in some future paradise, you might want to set your alarm clock for no later than 1,000 years from now. According to the BBC, Stephen Hawking will be saying this much in the 2016 Reith Lectures – a series of lectures organized by the BBC that explore the big challenges faced by humanity.
If we reach some of the “tipping points” that scientists talk about, like the melting of permafrost and the subsequent release of methane, we could be in real trouble..
The Harvard Project on Climate Agreements—and its Director, Robert Stavins—have completed a multi-year, multi-faceted engagement with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The IPCC is an intergovernmental organization that engages the global scientific community in assessing research on climate change and synthesizing this research for policymakers. The IPCC, as the leading organization pursuing this mission, prepares its reports primarily for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its member governments.
Fifth Assessment Report
The IPCC's volunteer scientist-authors prepare major reports synthesizing the research literature on climate change approximately every five years. Over 800 scientists participated in the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5), completed in 2014. As did its predecessors, AR5 actually consists of three somewhat independent documents prepared by "Working Groups" on "The Physical Science Basis," "Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability," and "Mitigation."
The initiative has produced a number of publications:
A memo prepared immediately following the Berlin workshop and conveyed to the IPCC;
The impact this change will have on entrepreneurs, the lifeblood of the U.S. economy, is significant. This new code will enable a company’s founders and employees holding stock, including that obtained upon exercise of options, to save up to millions of dollars in taxes upon a company achieving a successful liquidation event.
Risk-taking entrepreneurs and investors who create jobs through building businesses will be rewarded for their efforts with lessened tax burdens. In this case, the disruptive innovation is a line of tax code rather than software code.
Known as Sec. 1202, it’s a small-business stock capital gains exclusion that has actually been around since 1993 (with modifications over the years). But thanks to Congress’ recent vote to PERMANENTLY extend some major tax benefits, it is more powerful than it has ever been because it eliminates all ambiguity.
In essence, Sec. 1202 allows individual investors or entrepreneurs and their employees who put money into a qualifying corporation with aggregate gross assets not exceeding $50 million before and immediately after the stock issuance, and which does not engage in repurchasing any of their outstanding stock, to now enjoy a 100 percent tax break on the specific investment gain with no offset to the benefit from the Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT).