Blended Lives: mi entrevista con Giuseppe Tringalli http://t.co/hwzbJVecnp— Santiago Iniguez (@SantiagoIniguez) June 30, 2015
Santiago Iñiguez - la amistad... la importancia de los amigos en la vida... la familia...
Accreditation and rankings are the two most used criteria to select business schools by international applicants who decide to study overseas, says Onzono.
Santiago Iniguez de Onzono, as chairman of the board of directors of GFME (Global Foundation for Management Education); member of the board of directors of AACSB (Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business), and the awarding body of EQUIS (European Quality Improvement System) is best qualified to speak on the importance of international accreditations for B-schools. Also president of IE University and the dean of IE Business School in Madrid, Spain, Iniguez has authored The Learning Curve: How Business Schools Are Reinventing Education, which deals with the future challenges of management education.
Can you tell us about the stringent quality checks put in place by AACSB and EQUIS for granting accreditations to B-schools?
09:00 – 10:00 Plenary IV – MOOCs
After years of fierce war among technology superpowers we may be witnessing the first glimpse of peace in the industry. Last Thursday Elon Musk, Co-Founder and CEO of Tesla Motors –an American company that designs, manufactures, and sells electric cars and electric vehicle powertrain components- announced that his company will open its patent portfolio to help expand the market for electric cars worldwide (1). Musk tells in his blog: “Yesterday, there was a wall of Tesla patents in the lobby of our Palo Alto headquarters. That is no longer the case. They have been removed, in the spirit of the open source movement, for the advancement of electric vehicle technology” (2).
This decision has been described by some as “The Gettysburg Address for Entrepreneurship and Innovation” (3) and by others as an ingenuous move with lessons for Silicon Valley (4). Coincidently or intentionally, Musk’s decision coincides very timely with the new rules announced by President Obama to curtail CO2 emissions from carbon plants by 30 percent from 2005 levels by 2030.
In fact, despite the renovated excitement over electric cars, their market penetration has been reduced and, according to Musk, they currently represent less than 1% of the vehicle sales of major car manufacturers. True, there is an increasing sensitivity among customers towards the environmental impact of their traditional car's emissions. However, the relative higher prices of electric cars, costs of maintenance, lack of a wide network of electric stations to recharge batteries and lesser autonomy, among other reasons, make the option for electric vehicles still unaffordable for many.
Interestingly, one of the most salient advocates for electric cars has been LinkedIn Influencer Carlos Goshn, CEO of the Renault-Nissan Alliance, the company enjoying the largest market share in the production of electric cars with 100,000 units sold worldwide, more than the combined production of the other car manufacturers. In an earlier post in LinkedIn Pulse this year, Goshn called for a major move by all stakeholders in the automotive industry: “I believe that if we are to transform the car for a new era, we must address three major issues: safety, the environment and affordability. But the auto companies cannot do this alone. We will need to partner with one another, with governments and other industries if the car is to remain a source of prosperity, progress and freedom” .
Is Musk’s decision sound from a strategic management perspective or is he diluting the value of Tesla’s patents, a major asset of his company? It is worth mentioning here a key finding released in an academic paper of the 1980’s (6, PDF, 81 pages) and widely diffused at many business strategy courses at business schools. According to the opinions of an ample range of managers, the least effective way to benefit from new inventions or innovations in business is relying just on the protection of patents. The same study shows that the most successful way to maximize innovation is taking advantage of the lead time an exploiting the time-to-market advantage of being the pioneer in launching a new product or service. Other alternatives to protect innovation preferred by managers include climbing down the curves of experience, in order to reduce costs and offer competitive prices, as well as reinforcing sales efforts when launching a new product. Keeping secrecy and, particularly trusting in the legal shield provided by patents are the least reliable choices to defend innovation. The results of the mentioned study can be found in chart below.
Taking this into account, Musk’s decision can be considered strategically sound and may contribute to the spread of electric car’s technology and even to convert Tesla’s products in the standard adopted by other players in the industry. At the same time, it should be emphasized that Musk’s announcement does not entail that Tesla is giving away its patents. In his own words, it means that they “will not initiate patent lawsuits against anyone who, in good faith, wants to use our technology” (7). It is thus to be determined the reach of “good faith” uses in the open source access to Tesla’s technology, and the company retains its right to litigate with those players that may compete unfairly.
Clearly, Musk’s announcement marks a decisive shift in the culture of patent protection in technology related industries. In past years, patent litigation flourished at the expense, in the opinion of many, of fostering innovation and progress and benefiting mostly lawyers. A clear case is the upsurge of patent trolls, those companies owning and enforcing patent rights against infringers, but without exploiting the full business potential of patents, thus impeding development and innovation.
Tesla’s move to open source technology is inspiring, particularly for companies operating in rapidly evolving industries where the patent protection system lags behind actual innovation and market development. At the same time, it is arguable whether it would be transferable to other industries with huge research and development costs over time, like the pharmaceutical sector, or to organizations like universities, which may need different mechanisms to promote and capitalize on their intellectual property. This may be one of the reasons why Senator Leahy recently decided to drop the patent reform bill, which aimed at reducing litigation by patent assertion entities and patent trolls. However, he declared “that If the stakeholders are able to reach a more targeted agreement that focuses on the problem of patent trolls, there will be a path for passage this year and I will bring it immediately to the (Senate Judiciary) committee” (8).
Regardless what the future legislation brings, I believe that companies will better protect and capitalize on their innovation if they engage in collaborative schemes and alliances with other players in the industry, rather than in defensive or litigation strategies. In the words of Musk: “Technology leadership is not defined by patents, which history has repeatedly shown to be small protection indeed against a determined competitor, but rather by the ability of a company to attract and motivate the world’s most talented engineers. We believe that applying the open source philosophy to our patents will strengthen rather than diminish Tesla’s position in this regard”. (9)
(5) Carlos Ghosn, LinkedIn, Feb. 19, 2014, "We Can Ensure The Car Remains a Vehicle For Progress"
Photo: Heisenberg Media / Flickr
English as the lingua franca of higher education? - University World News: http://t.co/wrHnmlBpOh— Santiago Iniguez (@SantiagoIniguez) November 24, 2013
Santiago Iniguez - Dean of IE Business School and President of IE University
Santiago Iñiguez, presidente de IE University y decano de IE Business School, presenta las conclusiones a las que llegó el conjunto de expertos de todas partes del mundo que participaron como ponentes en la cuarta conferencia “Reinventing Higher Education” organizada por IE University en Madrid. El papel de las potencias emergentes, la reforma en Reino Unido y los nuevos modelos de educación online fueron los temas tratados en la conferencia, que trata de crear debate y esclarecer en lo posible el rumbo de la educación superior.
Santiago Íñiguez es Doctor en Derecho y MBA por IE. Ha trabajado como consultor de dirección de empresas y ha desempeñado una actividad relevante en el ámbito de la calidad en la formación ejecutiva. En la actualidad, Íñiguez compagina sus responsabilidades como Decano de IE Business School con los cargos de Presidente de EQUAL (European Quality Link), consorcio que integra las asociaciones de acreditación de escuelas de negocios de Europa; Miembro del Consejo Internacional de AMBA (Association of MBAs, Reino Unido); y Presidente de IE Fund en Estados Unidos.
Looking forward to attend IE Venture Day Mumbai next Saturday and catching up w/ friends and amazing entrepreneurs http://t.co/3k2Ez0hPNv— Juan J Güemes (@juanjguemes) October 23, 2013
THE FIRST business schools were founded in the US around the beginning of the 20th century. A century later, management education became truly globalised when the 2009 Financial Times ranking of MBA programmes included three European and one Chinese in the top 10.
A year later, first place went to the London BusinessSchool, unseating Wharton, which had alternated the top laurels with Harvard. In the same year's executive MBA ranking, six of the top 10 programmes were European or offered jointly by US and European schools.
US schools' loss of hegemony has been also highlighted by the increasing flow of American MBA students studying abroad...
There is no magic formula for turning somebody into a consummate manager. Good managers are made over time, based on the systematic exercise of good habits and routines, and through the accumulated experience of their sector and their relationships.
To reach the heights of management excellence requires discipline and hard work. It is not achieved simply through the passage of time.
Nevertheless, universities and business schools can help lay the foundations for this process by providing a more integrated and rounded education to current and future managers.
The extreme specialisation developed in universities in the past has been criticised because of its undesirable consequence, namely ‘silo syndrome’, whereby academics deal only with colleagues in their subject and students gain only narrow perspectives on practical and theoretical knowledge.
Universities can combat this by restoring the value of the humanities in the tradition of American liberal arts colleges. Making the humanities a core part of all degrees will cement the learning experience and develop open-minded and well-rounded graduates.
I also believe that good management is not just about implementing good managerial techniques. It is about leading people, understanding collective behaviour and developing a strategic vision.
These managerial skills are genuinely related to the humanities, which is why I support the integration of different management disciplines within the context of the social sciences and the humanities.
Our experience at IE University shows that including humanities courses in management programmes enhances the whole learning experience. We have introduced subjects and sessions dedicated to the humanities in all programmes, from the bachelor in business to the MBA programme and executive education.
Ours is a two-pronged goal. On the one hand we hope to include management studies within the broad spectrum of the social and human sciences, with the aim of highlighting the inter-connectedness of the models, concepts and theories of a range of disciplines, thus leading to a better understanding of the social role of business.
The aim is also to create well-rounded managers – enlightened and cultivated directors who have a working knowledge of the arts and history of their own and other cultures, thus better enabling them to lead multicultural teams.
We believe that studying history enables directors to take better business decisions based on an understanding of the experiences of the past. Similarly, an understanding of the history of art can strengthen students' powers of observation and perception, which in turn enables them to take more reflective or considered decisions, thereby offering a counterbalance to the action-oriented approach of most directors.
In addition to revisiting the role of humanities in management programmes, we need to find new ways of identifying talent that go beyond conventional forms of intelligence.
One of our biggest challenges for the future is to come up with alternative ways of identifying diverse talent, and consequently developing the means to bring out the best in students. This will significantly expand the pool of potential applicants to business schools and other higher education institutions while helping these centres identify the candidates that are right for them.
Moreover, we need to develop new teaching methodologies and approaches to learning that bring out the entrepreneurial and innovation skills of management students, along with their interpersonal and leadership skills.
This is without doubt the next major challenge with regard to teaching in business schools, and in order to meet it we will have to work closely with educationists and psychologists. Such an approach will also have a tremendous impact on our students and on management in general.
First, it will amplify the pool and profile of potential applicants to business school programmes, attracting those entrepreneurial candidates who were previously reluctant to start along or quick to exit the academic path. But second, and most importantly, it will make management programmes become transformational experiences suited to each student's specific form of intelligence.
Opening up the curriculum to the humanities while developing new teaching methods for identifying individual aptitudes presents promising new horizons.
I believe that the changes outlined here are essential not only for the future relevance of business schools, but also for business graduates who look forward to becoming entrepreneurs or to joining the current challenging jobs market.
* Santiago Iñiguez is president at IE University and dean of the IE Business School in Madrid. His last book, The Learning Curve: How business schools are re-inventing education (Palgrave, 2011), explains the changes being undertaken in the sector worldwide. This article is based on a presentation he gave at the “Going Global” conference earlier this month.