Stephan Seiler: Can Hospital Competition Save Lives? http://t.co/rsugN6UJe8— COSTAS ANDRIOPOULOS (@candriopoulos) June 21, 2015
...Lying on the operating table, they are probably not thinking about how market forces have shaped the performance of their medical team.
They should be. A recent study co-authored by Nicholas Bloom and Stephan Seiler, professors at Stanford University, demonstrates that competition among hospitals significantly improves management and quality of care. “If you live in a remote area with only one hospital nearby, you should be worried,” says Bloom. “Without competition, what’s keeping it on its toes?”...
To conduct the study, the researchers — who also included Carol Propper from Imperial College Business School and John Van Reenen from the London School of Economics — looked at counties in the United Kingdom featuring relatively large numbers of hospitals...
Mes pauvres enfants, le Nutella "destructeur" ! http://t.co/lNOABOo4ZM— Thomas Froehlicher (@FroehlicherT) June 16, 2015
Et si le fabriquant jure qu'elle est «certifiée durable», la fondation de Nicolas Hulot rappelle que l'huile de palme «est à l'origine de 90% de la déforestation en Malaisie»
Environmental impact of palm oil (Wikipedia) ...Significant greenhouse gas emissions. Deforestation, mainly in tropical areas, accounts for up to one-third of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions... ...responsible for over 80% (~88%) of world oil palm production, Indonesia and Malaysia... ...In 2010, the Nature Conservancy took representatives of America’s National Farmers Union and the American Farmland Trust to Brazil to see how illegal forest clearance was "hurting US businesses by flooding markets with cheap and unsustainable products". A new (2010) report from David Gardiner & Associates (Mr. Gardiner served as the Executive Director of the White House Climate Change Task Force during the Clinton Administration), a consultancy, says that protecting the 13,000,000 hectares (50,000 sq mi) of mostly tropical forest that are lost annually to timber, cattle and agricultural production would boost American agricultural revenue by as much as USD$190 billion-270 billion between 2012 and 2030. (PDF, 56 pages, "Farms Here, Forests there" (see page 20 Palm Oil Modeling Results: potential $USD 40B savings))
Conclusion of "Farms Here, Forests there"
Conserving tropical rainforests generates significant financial gains and savings for the U.S. agriculture and timber industries, while also increasing opportunities for residents of rainforest nations.
Nestlé Media statement, on their website: "Update on deforestation and palm oil. Nestlé is committed to communicating regularly on progress, including holding regular meetings with Greenpeace (report "Frying the Forest")...
Taking action with our suppliers
The supply chain of palm oil is very complex and there are no quick and easy solutions. We have conducted an in depth analysis of our supply chain in order to create transparency and detailed action plans. Read more about the complexity of the palm oil supply chain in the RSPO Supply Chain Systems Overview (pdf, 3.95Mb)..."
In response to the urgent and pressing global call for sustainably produced palm oil, the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) was formed in 2004 with the objective promoting the growth and use of sustainable oil palm products through credible global standards and engagement of stakeholders. The seat of the association is in Zurich, Switzerland, while the secretariat is currently based in Kuala Lumpur with a satellite office in Jakarta. RSPO is a not-for-profit association that unites stakeholders from seven sectors of the palm oil industry - oil palm producers, palm oil processors or traders, consumer goods manufacturers, retailers, banks and investors, environmental or nature conservation NGOs and social or developmental NGOs - to develop and implement global standards for sustainable palm oil...
What is the Scorecard?
The Palm Oil Buyers’ Scorecard 2011 measures the performance of 132 major retailers and consumer goods manufacturers against 4 areas which show whether these companies are acting responsibly.
The Scorecard focuses on European companies, since they are leading the way in transforming the market for palm oil, and were the first to commit to the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO). However, it also looks at other markets such as Australia and Japan where some progress is being made.
...In 2008 Unilever, an RSPO member, committed to use only palm oil which is certified as sustainable, by ensuring that the large companies and smallholders that supply it convert to sustainable production by 2015. ...As of 2009, twelve companies including giant retailer X, tied for worst, scoring 0.
Research from Melbourne Business School (MBS) has found that if a product clearly reflects factors which impact ethical consumerism on its label, consumers will favour that product over others.
As a result of her research in this area, MBS Professor Jill Klein is calling for manufacturers to improve their labeling to provide consumers with a more informed choice and to increase sales.
Professor Klein based her research on a series of experiments performed at the Melbourne Zoo between April and June last year. Zoo visitors were asked to select between a food product that did not contain the orangutan-unfriendly palm oil and a virtually equivalent alternative that contained vegetable oil...
It is technically and economically feasible to run the US economy entirely on renewable energy, and to do so by 2050. That is the conclusion of a new study in the journal Energy & Environmental Science, authored by Stanford scholar Mark Z. Jacobson and nine colleagues.
Jacobson is well-known for his ambitious and controversial work on renewable energy. In 2011 he published, with Mark A. Delucchi, a two-part paper (one, two) on "providing all global energy with wind, water, and solar power." In 2013 he published a feasibility study on moving New York state entirely to renewables, and in 2014 he created a road map for California to do the same...
A more effective use of activists’ energy, Mr. Wolak (Dir..@Stanford) and Mr. Stavins (Dir..@Harvard) said, would be to work on putting a price on carbon emissions through a carbon tax or a cap-and-trade system. (versus Divestment campaigns etc.)
The most exhaustive study on the subject was conducted by researchers at Oxford, Mr. Caldecott among them. Their report, published in late 2013, examined previous divestment movements — like those against the government of South Africa in protest of apartheid, and against companies that sell tobacco, alcohol or pornography.
That’s largely because most energy company stock is held by big institutional investors like BlackRock and Fidelity, whose managers are unlikely to use their portfolios to advance moral or social agendas.
Divestment in itself is neither here nor there,” Atif Ansar, one of the study’s authors and a professor at Saïd Business School at Oxford, said in an interview. “On its own, it’s not going to generate any real impact.”
The Oxford researchers found that the negative publicity can create reputational headaches.
“It becomes much harder for stigmatized businesses to recruit good people, to influence policy and, occasionally, to raise capital,” Mr. Caldecott said.
A more effective use of activists’ energy, Mr. Wolak and Mr. Stavins said, would be to work on putting a price on carbon emissions through a carbon tax or a cap-and-trade system.
A more effective use of activists’ energy, Mr. Wolak and Mr. Stavins said, would be to work on putting a price on carbon emissions through a carbon tax or a cap-and-trade system.
Researchers found that most CEOs’ work was conducted verbally and was accomplished with and through other people. http://t.co/y80etizslZ— MITSloan Mgmt Review (@mitsmr) June 14, 2015
ICTA research leader in artificial intelligence, Professor Toby Walsh, says Watson is well suited to solving problems that involve sifting through large volumes of unstructured data.
As the volume of data available to humans increases, he says tools like Watson will be essential for helping make sense of it all. An early application of Watson is in helping clinicians make better decisions.
“The number of scientific papers being written is beyond the remit of any one person to read any more, and often it is unstructured text,” Walsh says.
One of the first Australian organisations to sign up to Watson is Victoria’s Deakin University. Chief digital officer, William Confalonieri, says the university is using Watson initially to create an intelligent digital guide for students. Deakin has received the highest ranking of any Victorian university for learning satisfaction for the past four years, and Confalonieri says the use of Watson is intended to cement this...
How does Watson learn? Watson gets smarter by tracking feedback from its users and applying that knowledge. http://t.co/up2UJSQdly— IBM Watson (@IBMWatson) June 2, 2015
Preparing for our #FoW2015 Champions' Event in London. We'll be talking about the next three research themes, including the Future of HR.— Lynda Gratton (@lyndagratton) June 9, 2015
Work that is valuable both now and as a hedge against the future has three crucial elements:
My new blog is about the most valuable asset a company can offer its staff. We need to think about it in a new way. http://t.co/hMfIcnL9Mp— Lynda Gratton (@lyndagratton) June 2, 2015
Masterclass debate: "Computers will make better decisions than humans" are you For or Against? #FoW2015— FoWlab (@FoWlab) April 28, 2015
The United Nations summit for the adoption of the post-2015 development agenda will be held from 25 to 27 September 2015, in New York and convened as a high-level plenary meeting of the General Assembly. sustainabledevelopment.un.org - xyz
bigthink.com/project-syndicate/why-jeffrey-sachs-matters or May 21, 2014 www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/bill-gates-explains-why-the-millennium-villages-project--though-a-failure--was-worth-the-risk
I greatly admire Sachs for putting his ideas and reputation on the line. After all, he could have a good life doing nothing more than teaching two classes a semester and pumping out armchair advice in academic journals. But that’s not his style. He rolls up his sleeves. He puts his theories into action. He drives himself as hard as anyone I know.
@JustinSandefur via Ray Fisman
Apr 29, 2015
Computational social science aims to discover universal facts.
Until recently, using entire populations as data sets was impossible—or at least impractical—given limitations on data collection processes and analytical capabilities. But that is changing.
The ability to track the social behavior of large groups has also shifted people’s understanding of human agency. “Until recently, we really believed that each of us made our decisions on our own,” Uzzi says. “Our friends may have influenced us here or there but not in a big way.” But troves of social-media data have shown that people are incredibly sensitive and responsive to what other people do. “That’s often the thing that drives our behavior, rather than our own individual interests or desires or preferences.”
The practice is part of SAP’s broader strategy to increase the number of women recruited into science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM, roles. The company’s goal is to have 25 percent of its leadership team represented by women by 2017.
In particular, the defense process represents an effort to help the company uncover unconscious bias — a human trait many human resources experts say supports the gender imbalance in STEM jobs. A 2013 U.S. Census Bureau report showed that men are hired at twice the rate of women for STEM roles, and a Global STEM Alliance report released in late January 2015 found that women still represent less than 30 percent of the world’s science researchers....
5) Focus On Improvement
When you frame things as a win/lose scenario and they don’t go well, you’re a loser. And so you quit.
When you take the perspective that everything is a learning experience, there are no winners or losers. And you just keep getting better. James said this attitude is key for SEALs:
Eric, this gets at my point of the SEAL experience, this constant learning, constantly not being satisfied. That’s one of the interesting things about the community: you never feel like you’ve got it all figured out. If you do feel like you figured it out, you probably aren’t doing it right. If you’re not willing to learn from other people then frankly you’re not doing all you need to do to be the best operator you can possibly be. It’s a culture of constant self-improvement and constant measurement of how you’re doing. That’s a theme I think that all SEALs would agree is critical.
Carol Dweck’s research* at Stanford shows that a “growth mindset” (believing abilities aren’t fixed and you can improve) is a key element of success. And Angela Duckworth has found this attitude is tied to grit**:
*Dweck explains why it’s not just our abilities and talent that bring us success–but whether we approach them with a fixed or growth mindset.
**“The only thing that I see that is distinctly different about me is I’m not afraid to die on a treadmill. I will not be outworked, period. You might have more talent than me, you might be smarter than me, you might be sexier than me, you might be all of those things — you got it on me in nine categories. But if we get on the treadmill together, there’s two things: You’re getting off first, or I’m going to die. It’s really that simple…” -Oscar-nominated actor and Grammy award-winning musician Will Smith
Apr 21, 2015
Among these families, more of the money is being put back into the economy. Second, it appears that the money is spent very wisely...
faculty.chicagobooth.edu/owen.zidar Assistant Professor of Economics
This paper investigates how tax changes for different income groups affect aggregate economic activity. I construct a measure of who received (or paid for) tax changes in the postwar period using tax return data from NBER's TAXSIM. I aggregate each tax change by income group and state. Variation in the income distribution across U.S. states and federal tax changes generate variation in regional tax shocks that I exploit to test for heterogeneous effects. I find that the positive relationship between tax cuts and employment growth is largely driven by tax cuts for lower-income groups and that the effect of tax cuts for the top 10% on employment growth is small.
You may purchase this paper on-line in .pdf format from SSRN.com ($5) for electronic delivery.
A meticulously researched study by William Lazonick, a professor at the University of Massachusetts Lowell, suggests that executives are using massive stock buybacks to manipulate share prices and boost their own pay—at great cost to innovation and employment.
What Rebekah Brooks can teach us about power http://t.co/lIcLIBljFP— Jeffrey Pfeffer (@JeffreyPfeffer) March 20, 2015
...In the real world, outcome interdependence is common. If I choose a subordinate, select an advisor, or help pick a co-worker or teammate, my own outcomes depend on the skill and drive of the person selected. Absent that outcome interdependence, I am much more likely to evaluate others on their likeability, which is partly determined by how they conform to role expectations, including gender role expectations.
A Stanford doctoral student, Peter Belmi, and I have a manuscript in preparation summarizing three studies showing this effect: outcome dependence changes how people weigh competence versus likeability when evaluating others. Likeability is more important when study participants’ outcomes don’t depend on the other person, and competence becomes comparatively more important when they do...
"When Better Is Worse: Envy and the Use of Deception" with Simone Moran, School of Management, Ben Gurion University
Many of society's biggest policy challenges — protecting the environment, providing healthcare, education, and safety, encouraging participation in the democratic process — are social dilemmas. These challenges require individuals to bear personal costs in order to benefit others, a behavior that is typically defined as ‘cooperation’ ...
www3.imperial.ac.uk - "Tech entrepreneur ‘brain-drain’ to US is a source of concern, say researchers"
Europe is undergoing a significant technology entrepreneur brain-drain to the United States because it is not doing enough to retain information and communication technology (ICT) start-up companies.
A report by researchers from Imperial College Business School, initiated by the EIT ICT Labs and published today, found that ICT is a major economic driver for Europe. Between 2005 and 2010, investment in the sector accounted for one-third of all economic growth in the region, while ICT innovations bring positive, knock-on benefits for other industries.
The report – ‘ICT innovation in Europe: Productivity gains, start-up growth and retention’ – found that European countries are leading the way in nurturing talent, but do hardly enough to retain it. In fact, 43 percent of successful EU start-ups end up being acquired by US companies.
A study prepared by P. KOUTROUMPIS(1), A. LEIPONEN(2 ) and L.D.W. THOMAS(3)
We acknowledge financial support from the EIT ICT Labs. We also wish to thank Achim Luhn for guidance and support and Kumush Abduraimova for research assistance.
(1) Imperial College Business School, (2)Cornell University and Imperial College Business School, (3)Imperial College Business School
Tech entrepreneur brain-drain to US is a source of concern http://t.co/sUZKqfzxGj— Aija Leiponen (@AijaLeiponen) March 12, 2015
Imperial College & EIT ICT Labs report on the impact of ICT on European economy: http://t.co/rIhVRjzUf5— Aija Leiponen (@AijaLeiponen) March 12, 2015
February 16, 2015
This is the fourth of six questions from a roundtable discussion with the directors of sustainability research centers at six top business schools.
In this complimentary series you’ll discover:
In this paper we study the public debate over net neutrality in the United States from January through November 2014. We compiled, mapped, and analyzed over 16,000 stories published on net neutrality, augmented by data from Twitter, bit.ly, and Google Trends. Using a mixed-methods approach that combines link analysis with qualitative content analysis, we describe the evolution of the debate over time and assess the role, reach, and influence of different media sources and advocacy groups in setting the agenda, framing the debate, and mobilizing collective action. We conclude that a diverse set of actors working in conjunction through the networked public sphere played a central, arguably decisive, role in turning around the Federal Communications Commission policy on net neutrality.
Whatever happened to teaching students to analyse the complex social systems in which they will live and work?
The latest research from Prof. Bruce Kogut: Economists Aren't As Nonpartisan As We Think http://t.co/18eKu1GaaO— Bernstein Center@CBS (@bernsteincenter) December 8, 2014
Dec 8, 2014
According to purists, the field of economics is supposed to be free of political ideology. Economics views itself as a science1 and the prevailing consensus, best articulated by Nobel-winner and Chicago-school doyen George Stigler, is that “the dominant inﬂuence” in economics “is the set of internal values and pressures of the discipline” which help keep it nonpartisan.
With this knowledge about actual ideology in hand, we built an algorithm that discovered the relationships between political leanings and word choice in about 18,000 academic papers written by our sample of economists.
We first found that an economist’s research area is correlated with his or her political leanings. For example, macroeconomists and financial economists are more right-leaning on average while labor economists tend to be left-leaning. Economists at business schools, no matter their specialty, lean conservative. Apparently, there is “political sorting” in the academic labor market.
To conduct the research, Soule, along with Stanford GSB student Jacob Model and Brayden G. King, an associate professor at the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University, tracked outcomes of more than 750 shareholder resolutions related to environmental causes. In a second study, she and King worked with Mary-Hunter (Mae) McDonnell, an assistant professor at the McDonough School of Business at Georgetown University, to examine interactions between corporate activists and 300 corporations.
Sarah Soule is the Morgridge Professor of Organizational Behavior at Stanford GSB and the Hank McKinnell-Pfizer Inc. Faculty Fellow for 2014-15.
How can nations, cities and companies grow their economies, while reducing the risk of dangerous climate change?
Or, What I’ve Learned in 12 Years Writing about Energy (7000 words...)
The Centre on Innovation and Energy Demand (CIED) develops socio-technical understandings of the emergence, diffusion and impact of low energy innovations. Sussex Energy Group
"For RE diffusion to increase, gvmt action should be directed not only @ shielding renewables from competition w/ fossil fuel tech" Masini— HEC Paris Knowledge (@HECKnowledge) January 8, 2015
And, unfortunately, that’s the good news.
If nations want even a 50 percent chance of avoiding dangerous global warming, they’ll need to keep more than 80 percent of current coal reserves in the ground. And in the United States, more than 90 percent of coal reserves would need to stay buried, according to a new study from University College London.
...In this new paper, published Wednesday by the journal Nature, researchers tighten the focus of this global carbon budget by breaking the global numbers into regional ones...
...In the Middle East, producers would have to forego 38 percent of their oil and 61 percent of their gas. China and India would close off 66 percent of their coal. Former Soviet states would keep 94 percent of their coal underground...
And, unfortunately, that’s the good news.
...The above estimates assume that power plants and industry will be able to capture and hide much of their carbon dioxide beginning in 2025. Without that rosy assumption, idled coal reserves jump to 95 percent in the U.S., 77 percent in China and India, and 97 percent in the former U.S.S.R. And these numbers may be the safer bet
“Spending time with the people you love doing the things you love is the best road to happiness." http://t.co/Hde4Thu8cY— Stanford Business (@StanfordBiz) January 1, 2015
Faculty participating in X-Culture, a global virtual team project started by Vasyl Taras at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro (see “Grassroots Innovation” on page 33), are currently working on a study on the effect of “free-riders” who don’t pull their own weight on virtual teams. Although free-riding can be a problem on any team, it can be especially prevalent when team members have never met each other and have no sense of social obligation or reciprocity to each other.
A global team’s performance can plummet if just one of its members shirks his or her responsibilities, says Taras. “It’s all about the perception of injustice,” he says. “If one person on a ten-member team doesn’t do his share of the work, logic says that the team’s performance should decrease by ten percent. But our data show that when one student on a team doesn’t participate, it leads to a disproportionately large loss in performance. If two stop participating, everyone stops working because they think, ‘Why should I work if those two aren’t working and we’re all getting the same grade?’”
Using data collected from X-Culture projects, faculty already have reduced nonparticipation among X-Culture students dramatically, from 30 percent to about 3.5 percent. By employing the following strategies, Taras believes other professors can achieve the same success:
Require weekly peer evaluations. When students can evaluate their team members, “it works like magic, because students can restore a sense of justice on the team if someone isn’t doing his share of the work,” says Taras.
Give the power to exclude. Students can vote on whether a free-rider can stay on the team. The possibility of being voted off the team gives everyone an incentive to contribute, says Taras.
Cultivate cultural intelligence. After testing how factors such as team size, cultural diversity, or age affect the level of free-riding, X-Culture faculty have found that cultural intelligence plays the biggest role. Students who are culturally intelligent—who respect and can listen effectively to a diverse range of people—are much less likely to shirk their duties.
That’s why many X-Culture faculty devote up to a week in their course schedules to activities that allow students to learn about their teammates’ interests, families, and other personal information. “When people know each other, they have a sense of social obligation, which increases how much they respect each other and how much they’ll commit to accomplishing a common goal,” says Taras. “That extra time might seem unrelated to the project, but it makes a huge difference in the project’s outcome.”
December 17, 2014
After years of stress, in-fighting, anxiety and admin, the day has almost arrived: on 18 December, the results of the latest university research audit will be released.
The research excellence framework (REF), an exercise that assesses the quality of academic research, is a huge deal for universities and academics.
The results determine how much research funding they are granted – there’s £2bn a year up for grabs – and they’re used to determine institutions’ rankings in league tables. A poor performance can close a department, while a top rating means steady funding.
154 UK universities took part in the REF, with special panels reviewing a total of 190,000 research submissions by 52,000 academic staff.
Every six years, institutions are asked to submit examples of their best research to be assessed by a team of academics and industry experts. Each subject area is awarded up to four stars...
Dr Dennis Lendrem, of the University of Newcastle, said: "Idiotic risks are defined as senseless risks, where the apparent payoff is negligible or non existent, and the outcome is often extremely negative and often final".
December 8, 2014
As work organizations become increasingly gender diverse, existing theoretical models have failed to explain why such diversity can have a negative impact on idea generation. Using evidence from two group experiments, this paper tests theory on the effects of imposing a political correctness (PC) norm, one that sets clear expectations for how men and women should interact, on reducing interaction uncertainty and boosting creativity in mixed-sex groups. Our research shows that men and women both experience uncertainty when asked to generate ideas as members of a mixed-sex work group: men because they may fear offending the women in the group and women because they may fear having their ideas devalued or rejected. most group creativity research begins with the assumption that creativity is unleashed by removing normative constraints, but our results show that the PC norm promotes rather than suppresses the free expression of ideas by reducing the uncertainty experienced by both sexes in mixed-sex work groups and signaling that the group is predictable enough to risk sharing more—and more-novel—ideas. Our results demonstrate that the PC norm, which is often maligned as a threat to free speech, may play an important role in promoting gender parity at work by allowing demographically heterogeneous work groups to more freely exchange creative ideas.
ECB could fix euro zone flaw with risk-free bond (think tank)
Study cited in this article (PDF 70 pages)
"The High-Frequency Trading arms Race: Frequent Batch Auctions as a Market Design Response", by Eric Budish, Peter Cramton and John Shim, December 2013
High-frequency trading might reduce liquidity, not boost it as its defenders claim http://t.co/9OafPh0kbL— The Economist (@EconBizFin) December 5, 2014
Generally considered a negative trait, entitlement, in small doses, can actually have the positive effect of boosting creativity, according to a new study to be published in the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.
Various studies have found that those who feel entitled are less likely to help others or apologize and are more likely to want special privileges, break rules, treat their romantic partners selfishly and make unethical decisions.
Lynne Vincent, post-doctoral research fellow at the Vanderbilt Owen Graduate School of Management / (Vanderbilt)
However, in a new study, entitlement was examined for a positive consequence, and researchers found that stirring entitlement in people stimulates their creativity. The condition was prompted by a short exercise where subjects were encouraged to write sentences about why they deserved various positive outcomes.
“Our results suggest that people who feel more entitled value being different from others, and the greater their need for uniqueness, the more they break convention, think divergently and give creative responses,” say Lynne C. Vincent, a post-doctoral research fellow at the Vanderbilt Owen Graduate School of Management, and Emily Zitek, assistant professor of psychology at Cornell University’s School of Industrial and Labor Relations.
In four studies documented in the article “Deserve and Diverge: Feeling Entitled Makes People More Creative,” subjects given a boost in feelings of entitlement did significantly better in creativity tests...
EU migrants in UK pay £20bn more in taxes than they receive
New CReAM research shows that European immigrants to the UK have paid more in taxes than they received in benefits http://t.co/hVkcbf5KmC— CReAM (@CReAM_Research) November 5, 2014