1. Introduction: What kind of leader are you becoming?
1. Introduction: What kind of leader are you becoming?
The United Nations summit for the adoption of the post-2015 development agenda will be held from 25 to 27 September 2015, in New York and convened as a high-level plenary meeting of the General Assembly. sustainabledevelopment.un.org - xyz
bigthink.com/project-syndicate/why-jeffrey-sachs-matters or May 21, 2014 www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/bill-gates-explains-why-the-millennium-villages-project--though-a-failure--was-worth-the-risk
I greatly admire Sachs for putting his ideas and reputation on the line. After all, he could have a good life doing nothing more than teaching two classes a semester and pumping out armchair advice in academic journals. But that’s not his style. He rolls up his sleeves. He puts his theories into action. He drives himself as hard as anyone I know.
@JustinSandefur via Ray Fisman
Leaving Paris. Per usual, loved every second. Thanks to Le Web for having me, and to AirBnB for being wonderful in Europe, generally.— Soraya Darabi (@sorayadarabi) December 10, 2014
Academy of Management Learning & Education. June 2014, Vol. 13 Issue 2, p154-170. 17p. 1 Diagram, 2 Charts.
This study explores how positive (PRMs) and negative role models (NRMs) of business affect students' attitudes, expectations, and behavioural intentions relating to their future business behaviour. A thematic analysis of student reflections (N = 96) based on their experience of material presented in their Business Ethics/Corporate Social Responsibility modules, interpreted through the framework of Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour, revealed that while NRMs led to intentions to avoid unethical behaviour and engage in ethical practices such as ethical purchasing, they also increased cynicism and undermined students' self-efficacy in the ethical business domain. Exposure to PRMs offset the negative consequences arising from NRMs, protecting against reduced self-efficacy by showing that unethical behaviour is neither necessary nor inevitable in business, thus undermining the common justification for unethical behaviour that 'everybody does it'. PRMs increased awareness that business can be both ethical and profitable and provided inspirational role models which led to increased intentions to engage in ethical business practices. With reference to social psychological literature, these results suggest that PRMs are necessary to counter the impression created by NRMs that ethical business is unachievable or unlikely as such beliefs can become self-fulfilling.
BBC News - Early risers 'less moral at night' http://t.co/uDURdjMuFN— Sunita Sah (@Sunita_Sah) July 22, 2014
Safeguarding this critical zone was the focus of a recent meeting in Beijing, where the National Science Foundation of China met with their counterparts in the US, UK, France and Germany. The aim was to develop an Apollo-scale programme to tackle the resource constraints that threaten to undermine global economic development...
We have 10 years because many solutions will take at least a decade to take effect, and because we have only 20 years before the perfect storm of food, water and energy shortages (Above document) makes landfall.
The first step must be to create a theory. This would literally be a map of all of the processes and interactions that matter for sustaining life, including the flow of energy, nutrients and water in the landscape; competition between animals, plant and humans for these resources; losses in the form of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere; the role of soil in recycling nutrients; and the feedbacks between life and the physical environment including climate regulation and environmental engineering.
With such a map, scientists, businesses and decision-makers from all backgrounds can navigate and talk together. Each can see how their contributions and needs fit with those of others as the picture evolves.
Each person makes ethical decisions based on their values and perspectives. We rarely have an understanding of our approach to ethical decision making nor the variety of ethical lenses used by others.
The Ethical Lens Inventory™ (ELI) is a personal evaluation tool designed to help students understand the values that influence their choices. It identifies how they prioritize values when making ethical decisions. By understanding what values are most important to them and what values are most important to the other parties involved in an ethical situation, they can minimize unnecessary conflict, make better ethical decisions, and live their values with confidence and integrity.
From the January/February 2013 edition of the AACSB's www.bizedmagazine.com/features/articles/business-through-an-ethical-lens.asp
In his 17 years as executive director of the Ohio Ethics Commission, David Freel found that ethical lapses in business most often arise not from malice, but from inappropriate self-interest. Whether it's because their leaders model bad behavior or their organizations offer ill-advised incentives, even good people with good intentions can falter if they lack a solid framework for making ethical decisions...
Business schools not only need to sensitize their current students to the full range of their future responsibilities, but they should work with practicing professionals on their continuing education...
Dean Paul Danos is the author, US News & World Report, February 24, 2012
Paul Danos is dean of the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth.
There have been innumerable references to ethical lapses among MBA degree holders during the financial crisis of the last few years and understandably so. I believe that what irks many people in retrospect is the fact that the rewards and punishments of the major players did not seem to be commensurate with their roles in the fiasco. Some attribute the disaster to unbridled greed run amok among the financiers, and others put the responsibility on flawed public policy or inadequate regulatory oversight.
No matter who is ultimately to blame, lessons for anyone who purports to be educating leaders abound, and because so many of the bankers involved had MBA degrees, business schools must analyze the whole series of causes and effects, and try to draw conclusions about appropriate modifications to their own programs.
In light of the financial meltdown, I believe that MBA programs would better prepare their students if they could answer "yes" to the following three questions:
1. Are students exposed to the fundamentals of ethics and to cases of ethics violations from the real world? I would guess that most top schools give such exposure, and many schools have made ethics and social responsibility required coverage. This approach would address some of the issues around the appropriateness of reward structures and the morality issues related to the growing disparity in compensation within and across major organizations.
New York, NY, Grand Hyatt Hotel, March 15 - 16, 2012
Thomson Reuters and the Ethisphere Institute have teamed up to host the 4th annual Global Ethics Summit. As companies continue to expand and compete in the global marketplace, they are met with constant reminders of the importance of maintaining a robust global ethics & compliance program...
The following list of 100 individuals represents those that had significant impact in the realm of business ethics over the course of the last year.
Although many listed here are deserving of a lifetime achievement award, this list recognizes those that have made a significant impact specifically during 2011...
CHICAGO—A leading group of academic economists has adopted conflict-of-interest rules in response to criticism that the profession not only failed to predict the 2007-2008 financial crisis but may actually have helped create it.
The new policy stops well short of the broader ethical guidelines demanded by some in the field.
Many economists serve as consultants to companies, governments and other groups outside of their formal academic work. Critics both inside and outside the profession have argued those relationships—often lucrative and sometimes undisclosed—may have influenced economists' work, leading them first to miss signs of the impending crisis and then to recommend policy prescriptions that served their clients' interests, at the expense of the economy as a whole.
The criticisms were made most prominently in the 2010 film "Inside Job," which won an Academy Award for best documentary in 2011...
R. Glenn Hubbard, dean of the Columbia Business School, wants his students to make connections—and not just through networking.
He blames the recent financial crisis on a failure by leaders to successfully see the big picture, focusing instead on their area of expertise. Not connecting the dots, he says, was disastrous.
In Mr. Hubbard's view, business schools must prepare students with a broader education in order to thwart an economic meltdown. To that end, Columbia is deliberately weaving topics such as decision-making and ethics into classes across all disciplines...
WSJ: You've taken some heat for how the movie "Inside Job" portrayed your, and professors', disclosures [including dollars earned] of outside activities. Has Columbia changed its approach to any of this?
Mr. Hubbard: Despite what you might have seen in "Inside Job," we have a lot of disclosure. We just tightened it as a faculty, a project we've worked on since 2009. I've always disclosed what I do, my sources of income and relationships, that's how he knew what to ask me. We've now moved to a system where all faculty will do that. Basically, faculty résumés will [show] outside activities just like they [show] publications and teaching.
WSJ: What was the expectation before?
Mr. Hubbard: I've always done it [made disclosures] because I'm a dean. But the faculty did not have to do that. The faculty were always supposed to report if they received money to support research, that's just a matter of professional ethics...
Many people possess an over-confidence in their own moral capacity. Nitin Nohria, dean of Harvard Business School, argues this overconfidence is what so often gets people in trouble.
VIEWPOINT: Paul Danos is Dean of Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth. Here he explains why ethics and responsibility are key to great leadership and how they can be enhanced and developed...
...Foster is not unique in providing teaching opportunities to white-collar criminals. Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth College regularly invites convicted fraudsters who have served or are serving sentences to explain their actions and motives to students...
When I ask my colleagues about the main challenges our schools face today many point at the attraction, development and retention of good faculty as one of the most serious. Indeed, today schools compete to attract those scholars who combine the best credentials in research with solid teaching skills and who also interface with the top management of respected companies. I have sometimes refer to these well-rounded academics as “kangaroos”, as opposed to “gurus”, because the former are able to jump from research to class to consultancy in large corporations, performing excellently in the three facets. Let me now further elaborate on this multifaceted type of academics by opposing two models of faculty, which I will name “Humboldtian Faculty” and “Mavens”.
“Humboldtian Faculty” was moulded at the eponymous institution in Berlin in the early Nineteenth Century and has inspired the model of academic prevalent at all Western universities in the past two hundred years. Wilhelm Von Humboldt believed that, in order to make a significant leap in the sciences and in the humanities, the career of academics should become specialised –until then, university professors may teach different discipline- and universities should be organised in schools and departments. A number of consequences for the academic profession followed over the decades and I summarise some of these features in the chart included below.
The Humboldtian Faculty model has rendered many positive results. Knowledge has experienced an unprecedented advance across the board. At the same time, a significant number of education analysts and scholars have warned about some undesirable effects of the model such as the “silos syndrome” derived from an extreme specialisation and lack of integration of both academics, teachings and research at large.
In addition, the demands from stakeholders, the formidable impact of technologies in the learning process and the origination and distribution of knowledge are transforming the role and the ideal profile of scholars. I believe that the concept of “Maven”, widely popularised by Malcolm Gladwell in his book “The Tipping Point”, can adequately illustrate what is expected from business schools’ professors today. Mavens are active gatherers of new trends, ideas and data and have the key skills of identifying which of them may transform the world.
Furthermore, they exercise the necessary influence to have these ideas diffused through other major opinion makers in society –whom Gladwell calls “connectors” and “vendors”. I include a number of characteristics of faculty as Mavens in the chart below. I hope this idea contributes to a constructive debate on how to better shape the academic profession and adapt it to current changes and demands. I do not believe that I am proposing a revolutionary change, but rather an evolutionary but significant adjustment of the role that faculty play in the modern learning process.
"European school change of tactics to beat the US, China and India" was the title of an article, in Portuguese, published yesterday by Valor Economico- one of Brazil's top newspapers focusing on economics. The article was an interview of Santiago Iniguez, dean of IE Business School by Stela Campos, de São Paulo.
Download the interview here! PDF(100KB).
Irving Wladawsky-Berger, one of the key innovators at IBM, has a long post in his blog about a report by the Council of Graduate Schools (CGS) that covers Graduate Education: The Backbone of American Competitiveness and Innovation (1.8MB). The report, presented to the US Congress, covers the changing role of graduate education. One excerpt selected in the post on the key issues for the future:
" - Develop a highly skilled workforce by fostering collaboration among leaders in higher education, business and government
- Expand participation of underrepresented groups in all fields, especially those essential to America’s competitiveness and national security
- Create a vision for all US students that portrays careers in the STEM fields as engaging, compelling, transparent and remunerative
- Attract and retain the best and brightest students from around the world, and
- Enhance the quality of graduate education through ongoing evaluation and research"
STEM= Science, Technology, Engineering and Math. With a high percentage of doctorates in these fields being from outside the US, and the increasing problems to get the necesary permissions to go there or stay there, plus the fact that the country wants to focus on those areas and get more interest from young students in the research fields, marks clearly the transition to, what everybody has been preaching for years, to a knowledge-based economy. This new big reality will take most countries by surprise if they are not ready to have a lot of young people ready to innovate and take risks.
Environmental responsibility. Corporate governance and ethics. Fairness toward employees. Accountability to local communities. Providing responsible products and service to customers. Maintaining a healthy rate of return for investors.
Those are just some of the challenges of responsible business in the 21st century, challenges that are being met head-on by the 100 companies listed. These are the 100 Best Corporate Citizens for 2007—companies that are proving that good corporate citizenship and good business go hand in hand.
Welcome to the 100 Best Corporate Citizens page. For the past eight years, Business Ethics Magazine (and now The CRO) has been working with KLD Research & Analytics to rank and recognize publicly listed U.S. companies that excel at serving a variety of stakeholders.
The 100 Best Corporate Citizens list is regarded as the third most influential corporate ranking, behind Fortune magazine’s “Most Admired Companies” and “100 Best Companies to Work For,” according to a PRWeek/Burson-Marsteller CEO Survey.
Now in its eighth year, the 100 Best Corporate Citizens list was developed by Business Ethics magazine, with statistical analysis designed by Sandra Waddock and Samuel Graves of Boston College. This is the first year the list has been published in CRO magazine, which salutes the 100 Best companies for their leadership roles in corporate citizenship.See the full list now (453KB )
Excerpt of article of Business Week, February 13, 2007
There's a reason the MBA has earned a reputation as "the divorce degree."
B-school students are typically older than other professional degree-seekers (27, on average), and a higher percentage (about one-third) are married or seriously committed. Some have children. That means applying to B-school, and then, to jobs, can be an emotional roller coaster for two. Combined with the financial strain of going from two paychecks to one (or none), the round-the-clock nature of a full-time MBA program—from morning classes to late-night pub crawls—can put serious stress on relationships...
Article from Corporate Crime Reporter, February 5, 2007
The bad news – only 25 percent of the nation’s top business schools require a stand-alone ethics course before graduation.
The good news – that’s up from 5 percent twenty years ago.
That’s according to a recent study published in the current issue of the Journal of Business Ethics.(se e below)
The authors of the report surveyed the top 50 global MBA programs (as rated by the Financial Times).
The study’s authors questioned the deans or key officials of the 44 responding schools and found a keen interest among deans and students in the three areas surveyed – corporate social responsibility, ethics, and sustainability.
The study’s authors found that nearly one-third of the responding schools require coverage of all three topics in the MBA curriculum.
They also located “a significant presence of centers and other forms of institutional support dedicated to these topics.”
Abstract: This paper investigates how deans and directors at the top 50 global MBA programs (as rated by the Financial Times in their 2006 Global MBA rankings) respond to questions about the inclusion and coverage of the topics of ethics, corporate social responsibility, and sustainability at their respective institutions. This work purposely investigates each of the three topics separately. Our findings reveal that:
(1) a majority of the schools require that one or more of these topics be covered in their MBA curriculum and one-third of the schools require coverage of all three topics as part of the MBA curriculum,
(2) there is a trend toward the inclusion of sustainability-related courses,
(3) there is a higher percentage of student interest in these topics (as measured by the presence of a Net Impact club) in the top 10 schools, and
(4) several schools are teaching these topics using experiential learning and immersion techniques.
We note a fivefold increase in the number of stand-alone ethics courses since a 1988 investigation on ethics, and we include other findings about institutional support of centers or special programs; as well as a discussion of integration, teaching techniques, and notable practices in relation to all three topics.
Article from eMediaWire, January 05, 2007
LearningAndLife.com suggests that continuing education, particularly pursuing an MBA degree, may be a popular New Year's resolution for 2007. The U.S. government Web site, FirstGov.gov, revealed that getting an education is one of many popular New Year's resolutions that people make. Evidence in the article "This New Year, Take Control of Your Career with an MBA" on LearningAndLife.com, a Web site featuring career tips, educational advice, and school lists, suggests that business professionals will do well earning an MBA degree in 2007 (http://www.learningandlife.com/business-careers/this-new-year-take-control-of-your-career-with-an-mba.php).
(PRWeb) January 4, 2007 -- Continuing education by seeking a Master of Business Administration (MBA) or other degree could be a popular New Year's resolution for 2007. The U.S. government Web site, FirstGov.gov, revealed that getting an education is one of the many popular New Year's resolutions that people make. The article "This New Year, Take Control of Your Career with an MBA" on LearningAndLife.com, a Web site featuring career tips, educational advice, and school lists, recommends an MBA degree as a solid career investment for the New Year (http://www.learningandlife.com/business-careers/this-new-year-take-control-of-your-career-with-an-mba.php).
According to Marilyn Mackes, executive director of the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE), "Projections for M.B.A. hiring are in line with what we're seeing in the job market for new college graduates as a whole. … Employers reported plans to increase their college hires by more than 17 percent this year."
"This New Year, Take Control of Your Career with an MBA" recommends the MBA degree as an educational path to lead to working in or owning a business in areas including (http://www.learningandlife.com/business-careers/this-new-year-take-control-of-your-career-with-an-mba.php):
• Finance operations
Continuing education with an MBA degree offers the brightest future nationwide in manufacturing, according to NACE's "Job Outlook 2007." Regionally, they report the strongest outlook for hiring is in the southern U.S. with a 59 percent increase expected in hiring MBA graduates in those states.
Article from The Chronicle, December 9, 2005, (One year later what has been achieved?)
More than 200 college presidents, provosts, chief information officers, and other top academic leaders gathered here this fall to talk about the role of technology in colleges and universities and its effect on teaching and learning.
The Higher Education Leadership Forum was organized by The Chronicle and Gartner, a technology research and information company, to bring academic and technology leaders together to look at how technology is shaping colleges and universities, for good or ill.
Technology has altered almost every aspect of higher education, from libraries to teaching to student life. But in many ways we have only seen the beginning of the changes technology will bring.
Over the forum's two days, participants delved into many crucial questions about what higher education should be in the age of high technology.
Speakers and panelists looked at the big picture, at times asking the audience to reconsider the very mission of higher education and how technology fits into it.
Just because the Internet gives scholars and students access to "our own virtual Libraries of Alexandria" does not mean that education and research are improving, said Vartan Gregorian, president of the Carnegie Corporation of New York, in a keynote address.
"We should not perpetuate the myth that technology is only a benign force," he said. He expressed concern that "we have all become too complacent about the far-reaching impact of technology on all our lives."....
(At a recent meeting in Washington there was discussion of how US, European and Australian educational systems might be harmonised especially in view of the upcoming Bologna Process changes in Europe).
In the early 1990s, the then-presidents of Oberlin College and Stanford University floated the idea that the standard time for an undergraduate degree might be better at three years instead of four. The idea went nowhere — at least in the United States.
But 45 European nations have pledged to make three years the standard time for their undergraduate degrees by 2010. Under “the Bologna Process,” ...where the agreement for “harmonizing” European higher education was signed in 1999...
...What happens when some of that mobility involves graduate study in the United States? ...Should American graduate schools recognize three-year degrees and admit such students to graduate programs?
These were among the thorny questions that brought a number of academic leaders from the United States and Europe together on Saturday in Washington, at a meeting organized by the American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers. The outcome of these deliberations is also seen as likely to affect students and institutions in many other countries.
(Blogmaster) One of the comments to the original article:
There is an excellent set of resources on the Bologna Process available at the Web site of NAFSA: Association of International Educators. Location: http://www.nafsa.org/knowledge_co...t_admissions/bologna_process_net
Survey Shows MBA Students Believe Business Should Be Agent of Social Change, source, press release of CSRWire
Cleveland, Ohio - With the corporate scandals of recent years exposing severe moral and ethical transgressions, business schools have come under fire for failing to instill adequate ethical standards in students, while questions have been raised as well about the character of the students themselves. Several studies, for example, have found that business students cheat more than other students or are less concerned about economic and social justice.
Given this background, a Net Impact survey of more than 2,000 MBA students conducted within the past month gives cause for encouragement.
The survey suggests that the overwhelming majority of today's MBA students believe that businesses should work toward the betterment of society, that managers should take into account social and environmental impacts when making business decisions, and that corporate social responsibility should be integrated into core curricula in MBA programs.
Initial results of the survey were reported on Tuesday, October 24, by Liz Maw, executive director of Net Impact, at the Business as an Agent of World Benefit Global Forum in Cleveland. Net Impact is an international network of MBAs, graduate students and professionals committed to using the power of business to improve the world. The survey results will also be available at the annual Net Impact conference, Oct. 27-29 in Chicago and Evanston, Illinois.
"While we don't have earlier results for comparison, it may be that these responses reflect, at least in part, the extensive coverage of the corporate scandals of the recent past and the trials of the top executives implicated in them," Ms. Maw surmises. "It would hardly be surprising for such ethical disasters to enhance students' appreciation of corporate social responsibility."
The Net Impact survey was conducted online from September 25 to October 15, 2006 at 110 MBA programs in the US and Canada. A total of 2,112 students from 87 programs, 70% of whom were in the first year and 30% in the second, responded to 31 questions. Forty-five percent of the respondents were female, and 34% were people of color. Thirty-seven percent were members of Net Impact, whose membership exceeds 10,000 worldwide.
Among the findings:
While the 37% of the respondents who were Net Impact members were the most likely to be partial to social responsibility, social commitment proved strong even among the 63% who were nonmembers. Thus, among respondents who said they were not interested in becoming Net Impact members, 81% believed business professionals should take into account social and environmental impacts when making decisions; 64% said the subject of corporate social responsibility should be integrated into core MBA classes; 66% said business should work toward the betterment of society; and 60% said they would seek socially responsible employment.
The Net Impact survey was presented as part of a three-day global forum in Cleveland from Oct. 22nd to 25th. Convened by the Academy of Management, Case Western Reserve University and the United Nations Global Compact, the Business as an Agent of World Benefit Global Forum brings over 400 on-site and 700 virtual participants representing 40 different countries together to discuss issues of corporate social responsibility and sustainability.
Business school buys university, today 16:06 p.m., Della Bradshaw, Financial Times.
Instituto de Empresa, the Madrid based business school, has bought an 80 per cent stake in a local, private university for an undisclosed sum. SEK University, in Segovia near Madrid, was set up 10 years ago......Examples of business schools acquiring universities are rare indeed - usually it is the university that wants to establish a business school...
Della Bradshaw, Business Education Editor, Financial Times.
Are MBAs all a bunch of cheats? It is one of the great questions of the year in business school circles and must certainly make uncomfortable reading for most business school deans. According to the recent report from the Academy of Management Learning and Education Journal, MBAs are the biggest cheats of all graduate students with 56 per cent of them admitting to cheating. (The mind boggles at what the real figure must be.) Financial Times, September 20, 2006
But perhaps just as disturbing is the attitude of some European business schools that it is only US and Canadian students that cheat, as these were the only ones surveyed. In a letter in the FT on Monday October 2 from Henley Management College, for example, the author Professor Susan Foreman writes: "Yet again the integrity of future business leaders in the US is being called into question."
Prof Foreman blames US business schools for admitting younger students to their programmes who are easily misled. She says older students - and Henley students are well into their thirties -"have the maturity to challenge unacceptable behaviour within, rather than copy it."
To be frank, I'm not sure that this argument holds water. According to the report, MBA students cheat more than doctors, lawyers or social scientists. All my information about US graduate schools suggests that these students will be younger than MBAs - and yet they cheat less.
Also, according to the author of the report, Donald McCabe, professor of management and international business at Rutgers University, in New Jersey, undergraduate students cheat more than graduate students and high school students are the worst of all.
So, why are MBAs the worst cheats of all? I have my own personal theory, based on absolutely no evidence whatsoever. Could it be that MBA programmes have more men and fewer women participants than other graduate programmes?
Perhaps this should be next focus for Prof McCabe's research
British managers flock to MBA programmes, June 7, Financial Times
MBAs are by far the most popular masters degree in the UK, according to the latest ‘What Do Masters Graduates Do?’ report published by the country’s Higher Education Careers Services Unit.
Are Business Schools Becoming Truly Global?, Dean Edward A. Snyder, University of Chicago GSB
Business schools are becoming more global in terms of curricula as well as faculty and student profiles. Business schools are falling, however, well short of true globalization and the favored models have inherent limitations.
Can you teach a person ethics?, June 7, Chicago Tribune
Iraqi allegations. Hiring probes. Enron. Right and wrong seem to be elusive concepts
Rober F. Bruner, Dean of the Darden Graduate School of Business
With Enron's top executives, Kenneth Lay and Jeffrey Skilling, on trial for conspiracy and fraud–and a third, Andrew Fastow, testifying against them–the nightmare of the biggest bankruptcy in history is back. So are the questions that have dogged business experts since Enron's collapse: What really happened at the energy giant, and what can be learned from its demise? In a popular case study of the company, Robert Bruner, dean of the Darden Graduate School of Business Administration at the University of Virginia, and his coauthor, Samuel Bodily, a professor of business administration, have tried to provide a few answers– arguing, surprisingly, for a longer view of Enron's rise and fall. Bruner spoke with Senior Editor of the US.News & World Report Justin Ewers:
HOUSTON (Reuters) - Former Enron Corp. chief executives Ken Lay and Jeffrey
Skilling were found guilty on Thursday of lying about their company's troubled
finances in one of the biggest U.S. business scandals and could face years in
Tags(clickable): Enron, Ken Lay, Lay, Scandal, Skilling, Jeffrey Skilling